Phnom Penh map of relocated communities
1. Kork Kleng II
This site located near Kork Kleang 1, was selected by the District Authorities for the relocation of 99 families evicted from the old Tuol Kork market and the Boeung Salang drainage canal. The people moved on the land in August 2000. At the beginning, the project was solely managed by the district authorities who provided land and cash compensations for resettlers from Tuol Kork (at US$600 per family), filled the land and laid out the plots. Eventually, the community requested assistance from international and local organizations.
ANS installed communal toilets, SUPF and URC facilitated the installation of water supply with Kork Kleang 1 community, helped the community elect a new committee, UPDF organized housing loans , and UNCHS provided individual toilets. The community learned a lot from the experience of neighboring Kork Kleang 1 and skill exchanges were very important. Nowadays, the site benefits from individual pit latrines, water and electricity connections from the private sector. The water supply (which comes from the same main supply as for Kork Kleang 1) is however now suspended because of irregular payments. The site is also affected by flooding during the rainy season and lacks an adequate drainage system. It also lacks basic social services.
Kork Kleng II data_1
Kork Kleng II data_2
2. Tuol Rokakos
Mapping Toul Rokakoh
This relocation site, located 11km from the urban area was developed to accommodate people from mainly two communities (Tum Nup 2A and Kbal Tum Nup) from along the Bassac dyke, where the Municipality was planning a road and river-front promenade. Before the relocation, a working group was created comprising members of the community committees, NGOs involved in the relocation (ANS, URC, CVCD, USG), UNCHS, UPDF, SAWAC (engineering consultants) and Municipality officials. This working group met every month from August 2000 to discuss relocation issues, and particularly to plan and coordinate actions. The relocation, which was originally planned by the MPP to occur before the Water Festival (early November 2000) was delayed to the end of December in order to complete the land filling to acceptable standards, and organise the drilling of wells and construction of the first stage of individual latrines. In early November, a community action planning workshop took place with the participation of around 150 community members where relocation issues were discussed. Contrary to engineering advice during the planning stage, it was found that there is no water in sufficient quantity or quality available underground at the site. The issue of water supply is still unresolved at this stage and people use mostly water from nearby ponds or water brought by the MPP in trucks. This relocation was the largest at the time and was conducted rapidly. The community complained that they did not have enough time to organise themselves. Many pit latrines that were constructed during the rainy season collapsed at times. The site still lacks secure water supply, as well as a drainage and road system. A primary school was built on the site. No other social facilities, including market have been developed as planned.
3. Anlong Kngan
This site, located around 15km from the urban area, was previously used by the Ministry of Agriculture as an agricultural experiment station. In June 2001, on the occasion of the inauguration ceremony at Samaki 1,2,3, the Prime Minister announced that the government would donate this land to the Municipality for the relocation of squatter communities. After visiting the site however, the Urban Poverty Reduction Project commented during the workshop on relocation guidelines that the conditions, particularly in terms of access to employment and social services, were not appropriate, due to the site’s isolation and great distance to main roads and to Phnom Penh. It was recommended that the use of this site for relocation be delayed for a few years, until a comprehensive development of the site and the surrounding area could be planned. At the end of November 2001, two fires swept through the informal settlements of Bassac and Chbar Ampeou, located on each side of the Bassac river, destroying the homes of over 3,000 families. NGOs and international agencies tried to convince to Municipality to delay relocation so as to provide assistance to the victims on-site. This would minimise economic, social and psychological disruptions for communities who had lost most of their belongings in the flames, and allow time to prepare for resettlement in a planned and coordinated way, with the participation of communities. However, despite these arguments and the recommendations cited above regarding the Anlong Kngan site, most fire victims were forcefully relocated to this site (and Anlong Korng) within 10 days. The Anlong Kgan site was reserved only for residents who were fire victims, while renters were relocated to Anlong Korng (discussed in 3.1.3 I) There are now around 3,500 families living on the Anlong Kgan site, amongst which 2,600 to 2,900 have already been allotted plots. The Municipality had to give away 60 ha of land (out of over 150ha) to neighbouring villagers who claimed that the land belonged to them before the Ministry of Agriculture took possession of it. Temporary toilets (1 for 10 families) are now being constructed on the site, funded by UNCHS. A market is being built and private entrepreneurs have drilled wells and are selling water to many families. The housing situation is still very precarious for most people. There are fears that the site will be flooded during the rainy season, but no topographic survey is available yet. A temporary school has been organized in the old ministry warehouses. Around 100 families who claim that they lost family documents in the fire, complain that they have not received a plot although they were victims of the fire. Around 19% of the plots that have been allocated so far are not occupied at all (World Relief Survey 6/02/2002). In the plots that are occupied, income earners are often forced to stay overnight in Phnom Penh.
4. Tuol Sambo
This relocation started in 1999 and continued in 2000 from several settlements across Phnom Penh. The land was found and bought by the MPP much earlier, and had been rejected as a relocation site by earlier relocating communties due to its isolation, following which there were MPP plans to scrap relocation plans there and sell the land It is the furthest of the relocation sites, located some 21km from the urban area. The site layout was designed by UNCHS, who financed the construction of latrines, drainage and roads, which was executed by community members under community contract. Over half the families were assisted by the URC Young Professionals for the design of their houses and benefited from housing loans from UPDF. 52 families received assistance from Canada Fund through USG for housing material. The community benefits from a large public area, a pre-school and, recently a primary school. An informal market also established at the entrance of the settlement. A community centre, a health centre and a proper market are planned but have not yet been developed. Around one third of the people who originally moved to the site have returned to live in Phnom Penh. The community initially met difficulties as people came from many different settlements , each with their own leaders, and supported by different NGOs or CBO federations. This led to situations of disunity and distrust until the community appointed a single mixed committee.